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Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure  Construction differs from manufacturing in that manufacturing typically involves mass production of similar items without a designated purchaser, while construction typically takes place on location for a known client  Construction as an industry comprises six to nine percent of the gross domestic product of developed countries. Construction starts with planning, design, and financing; and continues until the project is built and ready for use.
Large-scale construction requires collaboration across multiple disciplines. An architect normally manages the job, and a construction managerdesign engineerconstruction engineer or project manager supervises it. Those involved with the design and execution must consider zoning requirements, environmental impact of the job, schedulingbudgetingconstruction-site safety, availability and transportation of building materials, logistics, inconvenience to the public caused by construction delays and bidding. Large construction projects are sometimes referred to as megaprojects.
In general, there are three sectors of construction: buildings, infrastructure and industrial.[6] Building construction is usually further divided into residential and non-residential (commercial/institutional). Infrastructure is often called heavy civil or heavy engineering that includes large public works, dams, bridges, highways, railways, water or wastewater and utility distribution. Industrial construction includes refineries, process chemical, power generation, mills and manufacturing plants. There are also other ways to break the industry into sectors or markets


  Industry sectors
Engineering News-Record (ENR), a trade magazine for the construction industry, each year compiles and reports data about the size of design and construction companies. In 2014, ENR compiled the data in nine market segments divided as transportation, petroleum, buildings, power, industrial, water, manufacturing, sewer/waste, telecom, hazardous waste and a tenth category for other projects  In their reporting, they used data on transportation, sewer, hazardous waste and water to rank firms as heavy contractors
The Standard Industrial Classification and the newer North American Industry Classification System have a classification system for companies that perform or engage in construction. To recognize the differences of companies in this sector, it is divided into three subsectors: building construction, heavy and civil engineering construction, and specialty trade contractors. There are also categories for construction service firms (e.g., engineering, architecture) and construction managers (firms engaged in managing construction projects without assuming direct financial responsibility for completion of the construction project)
Building construction is the process of adding structure to real property or construction of buildings. The majority of building construction jobs are small renovations, such as addition of a room, or renovation of a bathroom.[12] Often, the owner of the property acts as laborer, paymaster, and design team for the entire project.[13] Although building construction projects consist of common elements such as design, financial, estimating and legal considerations, projects of varying sizes may reach undesirable end results, such as structural collapse, cost overruns, and/or litigation. For this reason, those with experience in the field make detailed plans and maintain careful oversight during the project to ensure a positive outcome.
Commercial building construction is procured privately or publicly utilizing various delivery methodologies, including cost estimating, hard bid, negotiated price, traditional, management contracting, construction management-at-risk, design & build and design-build bridging.

Residential construction practices, technologies, and resources must conform to local building authority regulations and codes of practice. Materials readily available in the area generally dictate the construction materials used (e.g. brick versus stone, versus timber). Cost of construction on a per square meter (or per square foot) basis for houses can vary dramatically based on site conditions, local regulations, economies of scale (custom designed homes are often more expensive to build) and the availability of skilled tradespeople. Residential construction as well as other types of construction can generate waste such that planning is required.
According to McKinsey research, productivity growth per worker in construction has lagged behind many other industries across different countries including in the United States and in European countries. In the United States, construction productivity per worker has declined by half since the 1960s.
The most popular method of residential construction in North America is wood-framed construction. Typical construction steps for a single-family or small multi-family house are:
·         Obtain an engineered soil test of lot where construction is planned
·         Develop floor plans and obtain a materials list for estimations (more recently performed with estimating software)
·         Obtain structural engineered plans for foundation (soil test report obtained earlier will be used by engineer to design foundation), floor plan, floor (if two story).
·         Obtain lot survey
·         Obtain government building approval if necessary
·         If required obtain approval from HOA (homeowners association) or ARC (architectural review committee)
·         Clear the building site (demolition of existing home if necessary)
·         Survey to stake out for the foundation
·         Excavate the foundation and dig footers (Scope of work is dependent of foundation designed by engineer)
·         Install plumbing grounds
·         Pour a foundation and footers with concrete
·         Build the main load-bearing structure out of thick pieces of wood and possibly metal I-beams for large spans with few supports. See framing (construction)
·         Add floor and ceiling joists and install subfloor panels
·         Cover outer walls and roof in OSB or plywood and a water-resistive barrier.
·         Install roof shingles or other covering for flat roof
·         Cover the walls with siding, typically vinylwood, or brick veneer but possibly stone or other materials
·         Install windows
·         Frame interior walls with wooden 2x4s
·         Add internal plumbingHVACelectrical, and natural gas utilities
·         Building inspector visits if necessary to approve utilities and framing
·         Install insulation and interior drywall panels (cementboard for wet areas) and to complete walls and ceilings
·         Install bathroom fixtures
·         Spackle, prime, and paint interior walls and ceilings
·         Additional tiling on top of cementboard for wet areas, such as the bathroom and kitchen backsplash
·         Installation of final floor covering, such as floor tilecarpet, or wood flooring
·         Installation of major appliances
·         Unless the original owners are building the house, at this point it is typically sold or rented.


New construction techniques and sustainability
As efficiency codes have come into effect in recent years, new construction technologies and methods have emerged. University Construction Management departments are on the cutting edge of the newest methods of construction intended to improve efficiency, performance and reduce construction waste.
New techniques of building construction are being researched, made possible by advances in 3D printing technology. In a form of additive building construction, similar to the additive manufacturing techniques for manufactured parts, building printing is making it possible to flexibly construct small commercial buildings and private habitations in around 20 hours, with built-in plumbing and electrical facilities, in one continuous build, using large 3D printers.[15] Working versions of 3D-printing building technology are already printing 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) of building material per hour as of January 2013, with the next-generation printers capable of 3.5 metres (11 ft) per hour, sufficient to complete a building in a week.  Dutch architect Janjaap Ruijssenaars's performative architecture 3D-printed building was scheduled to be built in 2014.
In the current trend of sustainable construction, the recent movements of New Urbanism and New Classical Architecture promote a sustainable approach towards construction, that appreciates and develops smart growtharchitectural tradition and classical design.  This is in contrast to modernist and short-lived globally uniform architecture, as well as opposing solitary housing estates and suburban sprawl   Both trends started in the 1980s.
Wood is being introduced as a realistic material for skyscrapers (nicknamed "plyscrapers") thanks to new developments in super-strong engineered timber, whose collective name is "mass timber" and includes cross-laminated timber.


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